Saturday, March 14, 2020
Supply side policies and its economic impact Essay Example Supply side policies and its economic impact Paper Supply side policies and its economic impact Paper Supply side policies are those that improve the supply side of the economey. There are the two forms of supply side policy. Supply side policies of the product market and that of the labour market, which can directly influence the national economy. All the supply side policies of the product market are design to increase competition and therefore productivity. An increase in productivity will mean that an industry is able to produce more with a given amount of resources. Privatisation is a major supply side policy of the product market side that is intended to increase the productive potential of the economy and consequently lead to a higher rate of economic growth. Privatisation actually break up state regulated monopolies into privately own enterprises and this would eventually mean that the intensity of competition among businesses will increase, rather than having government firm not competing against each other, these privately owned businesses compete together. Recently in the United Kingdom the utilities such as gas and electricity have been privatised and this has benefited the economy greatly, although there have been a few exceptions to this such as rail track privatisation which has generally been considered as a national failure due to excessive under investment. Another common supply side policy of the product market side is deregulation, which aims at removing excessive sate imposed regulation on economic activity within the national economy. Excessive regulation requires certain expectations and standards that business must spend to comply with, and consequently it is these excessive regulation that are imposed on business which increase costs. Therefore deregulation decreases the economic costs for businesses and simultaneously allows more entrants to enter the market. The supply side policies of the labour market side are possibly imperative for attaining substantially higher levels of economic growth. The reforms such as legislation against trade union can help industries stuck in an endless cycle of dispute with their employers. Trade union typically aim to achieve higher wages and make sure that condition for workers are sound, and improving within their particular industry. If the government aims to reduce trade union power then this will hugely advantage the industry. Other supply side policies such as reducing unemployment benefits have not been used very much in the U. K. economy but possibly in other free market economies. In some free market economies the benefits received for being out of work can exceed those for taking a low paid job, therefore people would rather be out of work and receive benefits than working, therefore by reducing the benefits received for being out of work people would be less well off and consequently unemployment would increase helping increase the rate of GDP. Diagrammatically the level of output and the price level are determined by the interaction of aggregate demand and aggregate supply. Under some conditions, employment depends only on total spending, or aggregates demand. At other times, supply limitations are an important part of the policy problem and have to receive major attention. From the 1930s to the later 1960s, macroeconomics was very much demand-oriented. But in recent years the emphasis has shifted and aggregate supply and supply-side economics have gained in importance. This shift of emphasis and interest was no doubt fostered by the slow growth and high inflation experienced by the industrialised countries in the 1970s. If the economy is close to full employment, increased aggregate demand will be reflected primarily in higher prices or inflation. The aggregate supply side of the economy has then to be introduced. The aggregate supply curve specifies the relationship between the amount of output firms produce and their price level. The supply side not only enters the picture in telling us how successful demand expansions will be in raising output and employment, but also has a role of its own. Supply disturbances, or supply shocks, can reduce output and raise prices, as was the case in the 1970s when the price of oil increased sharply. Conversely, policies that increase productivity and thus the level of aggregate supply at a given price level, can help reduce inflationary pressures. In the early 1980s supply-side economists promised that disinflation was possible without unemployment. The 1981-1982 recession punctured that hope. But supply-side economics made a partial comeback because the recovery from that deep recession was both rapid and prolonged. Supply-side economics and its effectiveness abroad. Supply-side economics was all the rage in the United States in 1981, the first year of the Reagan administration. And so-called supply-siders still run a very active publicity machine, proclaiming the correctness of their views in the press and in books. Supply-side economists lay heavy stress on the incentive effects of taxation in determining the behaviour of the economy. Beyond that broad agreement there are really two separate supply-side groups. The mainstream group stresses the importance of tax incentives in promoting growth, especially by their effect on saving and investment. Similarly, it analyses the effects of tax changes on labour supply, the effects of Social security on saving and retirement decisions and a host of other important issues. But it was the radical fringe of supply-side group that received most of the publicity during the early 1980s, when Reagan tax cut that determined fiscal policy for the entire decade was put in place. This group made exaggerated claims for the effects of tax cuts on saving; investment and labour supply and for the effects of tax cuts on total government revenue from taxation. Among the intellectual leaders of the fringe was Arthur Laffer, whose curve has become famous. Radical supply-siders were installed in the Treasury and there was an active supply-side group in Congress. The radical fringe argued that 1) tax rate reductions would have such powerful effects on work effort that total tax revenues would rise and 2) the supply-side effects of the tax cuts would have a powerful effect in reducing inflation by increasing the growth rate of output. In 1981 the Reagan administration presented an optimistic scenario for growth with low inflation that was supposedly justified by supply-side considerations. Tax rates were to be cut significantly but, it was claimed, the rapid increase in growth would keep the budget close to balance. That at least was the public claim. Radical supply-side economics was thus an essential part of the rhetoric supporting Reaganomics. The most important factor in these policies was the Presidents determination to cut taxes. This was done in the belief that the government was too large and that government spending could be cut by denying Congress tax revenue to spend. Arguments by supply-siders that tax cuts would rapidly increase economic growth and reduce inflation were certainly welcome, but it is quite likely that President Reagan would have proceeded with his policies even had he known they would result in massive budget deficits, so long as they would reduce the size of government. Supply-side predictions were criticised at the time by mainstream macroeconomists. The evidence is that tax reductions do affect incentives and that tax cuts increase output. But there is no evidence that the incentives would be so strong as to result in higher government revenue after a tax cut. Similarly, an increase in the growth rate of output will contribute to reducing the inflation rate-but the effects are unlikely to be powerful. The events of two years following the Reagan tax cuts do not support the views of the radical supply-siders. Inflation was indeed reduced, but the reduction was a result of tight monetary policy and not of expansionary fiscal policy. Output fell rapidly; it did not increase. These events led to the departure of the radical supply-siders from responsible policy-making positions, but did not slow their claims that supply-side economics (of the radical branch) was the solution for the economys problem. An interesting sidelight on supply-side economics comes from considering the relationship between supply-side economics and monetarism. Both approaches are often associated with conservative political positions. But the two groups of economists are critical of each other. In their policy positions, favouring tax cuts in almost all circumstances and believing also that the Fed should allow rapid money growth to foster rapid output growth, the supply-siders are closer to Keynesianism than to monetarism. Supply side policies An alternative or even a complementary policy to demand-side management is to increase the productive potential of an economy, irrespective of the state of aggregate demand. Policy measures, which raise the long run or potential GDP, are known as supply-side policies. Successful supply-side policies raise potential GDP faster than if were it left to the normal process of economic growth. The attractiveness of such policies is that they bypass the uncomfortable trade-off between output and inflation. The general conclusion is that, regardless of their effectiveness, supply-side policies do not produce immediate miracles. They may increase incentive to raise production; they may be aimed at improving general efficiency; they may require some sectors to decline and free resources for other, more valuable uses. All these measures take time to work, five to ten years, or even longer. Three broad approaches to increasing the economys long-run potential have been examined. First, good supply-side policy should aim to make markets as efficient as possible and when markets fail that test, government intervention can improve matters. Second, given that governments are already interfering in the market place for both good and bad reasons, they should strive to minimise the negative impact of their intervention. One example is regulation; another is taxation; yet another is subsidy policy. Third, unemployment remains a deep concern in much of Europe where roughly 10% of the labour force is out of work. Taxation and the provision of public goods. Public goods are special because they naturally are non-rival and non-excludable. Being non-excludable, public goods cannot be charged to their users. A toll booth can be installed at a bridges entrance, but what price should its owners charge ? Non-rivalry means that the marginal cost of their use is very small; thus the price ought to be low. But fixed costs can be large (a bridge is very expensive to build), so how can the producer be compensated ? In addition, a bridge is a natural monopoly if it is the only one in the vicinity. If the owner charges a high price and makes large profits, market competition will lead to the multiplication of bridges next to each other, a very inefficient outcome. Markets just cannot cope with such failures, public goods need to be provided collectively (free bridges), or their provision needs to be regulated (privately built bridges are generally subject to strict regulations, including pricing and quality of service). Public goods are pervasive: transportation and amenities, but also justice and police, passports, defence and diplomacy etc. In each case, there is a market solution, but it is inefficient as not enough-sometimes none at all-would be privately provided. And in each case, the insufficient provision of the public goods would greatly impair economic activity, possibly leading to the breakdown of other, well-functioning markets. This is why the provision of public goods is a fundamental supply-side policy. The more efficient the provision, the more productive the economy will be. Efficiency means that public goods are produced at the lowest possible cost-which also involves issues of corruption. It also requires that resources be collected to finance the production of public services, an issue to which we now turn. Once a society has agreed to let government perform certain public functions, public resources need to be raised in order to pay for them. This is done through taxation of final goods and services. Taxation generally distorts markets by driving a wedge between the cost of producing goods and services and the price paid by the consumers. Non-distortionary taxes do not affect economic behaviour. An example would be lump-sum taxes levied on individuals without any reference to incomes, wealth, or spending, or taxies levied unexpectedly on past incomes and wealth so that it is too late to react. For this reason, non-distortionary taxes are appealing to governments. In practice, however, retroactive taxation is considered unfair precisely because it takes people by surprise. Lump-sum taxes are also unpopular, as Mrs Thatchers fateful experience with the poll tax in 1990 showed. As a result, nearly all taxes are distortionary. Laffer curve. Because distortionary taxes move the economy away from its first-best equilibrium, it is entirely conceivable that higher tax rates actually result in lower tax yields. This effect is sometimes called the Laffer curve. This curve describes a theoretical relationship between total government tax revenues and the average tax rate (the ratio of tax receipts to GDP). The tax rate ranges from 0 to 100%; at a 0% rate, tax revenue is nil; when the tax rate reaches 100%, no one is likely to work or produce at all so tax receipts are also nil. At intermediate tax rates, tax receipts are positive. The hump-shape of the curve indicates that the tax rate distorts the economy so much that beyond some tax rate, taxable income declines faster than the tax rate increases. The threshold point corresponds to the average tax rate for which tax receipts are at a maximum. Any rate of taxation to the right of this point is inefficient because the same tax income can be raised with a lower tax rate, i. e. less distortion. Incentives and taxation The social safety net. The social safety net refers to the system of transfers and benefits designed to help the disadvantaged and vulnerable in society. These include unemployment benefits, social welfare, old-age pensions, early retirement, health insurance and disability benefits. A large gap divides European countries, which transfer between 20% and 30% of their national income to individuals or firms, from the USA, Japan and Switzerland, which transfer only 10-15%. This might lead a casual observer to conclude that high European unemployment is a product of the social welfare state, which puts weight on solidarity but at the cost of productivity and economic efficiency. Yet it is too hasty to claim that Europeans have erred too far in the direction of social protection, in comparison to the rest of the OECD. The high level of transfers observed in Europe is to some extent a response to high unemployment, which may have other underlying causes. At the same time, these transfers-in the form of unemployment benefits, welfare and premature retirement and disability pensions-take the pressure off workers and firms to adjust to a changing world economy. The greatest danger is that the safety net becomes a trap, leading to long-term unemployment. It is useful to think about the adverse effects of the safety net on incentives. The social systems of most countries share two institutional features. First, poor or unemployed people receive transfers-income maintenance programmes or unemployment benefits-from the state. Second, income taxes are progressive: the rate of taxation increases as income rises. Taking up a job not only means receiving a salary, but also paying taxes if the salary is high enough and thereby losing eligibility for income maintenance programmes. It is conceivable then that people can be financially worse off by taking a job, not to mention incurring a loss of leisure and possibly some activity in the underground (shadow) economy. Implicitly, these people face an effective marginal tax rate-considering the overall effect of work on their income-in excess of 100%. Recent experience of work-to-welfare in the USA indicates that the incentive aspect is important for bringing workers on social assistance back to work. Labour taxation. Because labour is so important in any economy, it is natural to expect governments to tax it. Labour is one of the most highly taxed commodities. Not only is labour subject to income taxes paid by households, but also to a number of social security contributions by both employees and employers.
Thursday, February 27, 2020
To what extent has globalisation impacted upon local identities Illustrate your argument with an original example - Essay Example It is the picture perfect integrated transfer of goods and people across the globe. It is the opening up of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy to the rest of the world and become a part of the global economy. It is the opening up of a country to foreign investment. It is the easy access of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens to the rest of the world to travel for business and retreat. Globalization is based on the speculation that countries are not perfect in the manufacture of all goods, every country has some faults therefore it would be best if countries traded globally with each other and export their best products to a country which does not have a good quality of that product. For example, if a country is good at manufacturing something, it would be best for the company to export that good to a country which is not as efficient in the production of that good. Similarly, the latter country could export a particular good at whose manufacture they excel at and export it to the former country if i t lacks the manufacturing excellence of that product. It is a win-win situation for all the countries involved. Globalization also pertains to the subscription and application of the rules and procedures set by the World Trade Organization or WTO. WTO looks over the transactions between two trading countries. Globalization is a phenomenon that has gained speed and there wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be an end to it, and it would benefit the countries greatly who are a part of it (Ritzer G., 2010). As globalization is a global phenomenon, it has affected every aspect of life and every element that is a part of the economy. It has greatly changed the style of living of people throughout the world. Those changes are both negative and positive. Since globalization is access to goods from around the globe, local manufacturers are in the constant fear that they would be out of business because people have easy access to imported goods and that the local manufacturers become less viable. For example, a far mer who lived off by selling his local products made at his small piece of land or the some area allotted to him by the landlord would be put out of place if the same product from a foreign manufacturer is available at a cheaper or a relatively cheaper price. Globalization not only replaces local products with foreign ones and allows easy access to foreign products; it also exposes international cultures to the rest of the world through music, art, literature, movies and poetry etc. This exposure to foreign cultures is a cause of constantly bringing about changes in the local culture, values and traditions. Although there is no general agreement on the affects of globalization on local identities, the general opinion is that exposure to foreign culture upon local identities will minimize the effect of the local identities and they might fade out (Anon 2013). The effect globalization had on the local identities is mostly taken into consideration as negative. Globalization has commonl y been represented as the obliteration of the local identities and culture. It can be correlated with the overpowering strength of some foreign cultures which can easily overshadow other cultures with their own. At the outburst of globalization, western consumer culture started to spread at an alarming speed. Critics are of the opinion that even if globalization has led to an increase and improvement in the material aspects of life, it certainly has diminished the cultural and spiritual aspects and they fear if this
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
International Trade Meets Intellectuall Property - Essay Example These policies include the granting of trademarks, copyrights and patents. Patents protect inventions that are novel, not obvious to those in the field, and useful. Trademarks are commercial symbols that producers use to identify their services and products. Copyrights protect authorship works, such as books, from the time of their creation. The protection extends to integrated circuits lay outs designs, trade secrets, geographical indications and industrial design (Bainbridge 100). The stakes in protecting intellectual property were high for many companies in the US. Not only in the product development is cost, in the knowledge-based and artistic industries, but success rarely guarantee. Before TRIPS, the completion of TRIPS, US International Trade Commission estimates were that American companies lose between $50 and $70 billion annually to inadequate intellectual property protection abroad. Most affected of this are Pharmaceuticals, films, publications, chemical products, sound recording and software. For example, international markets were of growing significance to the US film and television business. However, as videocassette recorders became readily available the level of film piracy increased (Idris 241). The position IP-based industries were not universally accepted, however. Many developing nations oppose the idea of strengthening international intellectual property rights. Moreover, not only the developing countries opposed to it but also some industrialized countries. These nations, traditionally did not allow patents on food and medicines holding that monopolies should not be permitted on products so essential to consumer welfare. Developing countries argue that increasing IP protection brings no significant, dynamic gains but inflicts considerable static costs: price increases, harm to consumer welfare and more royalties to foreigners (Goldstein 150). Many developing countries did not that intellectual property
Friday, January 31, 2020
Women at point zero and Dolls House Essay She declares that as a prostitute [she] [is] not [herself], [her] feelings did not rise from within [her] (85). She [makes] no effort, [expends] no energy, [gives] no affection and [provides] no thought (86) when she sleeps with men. The parallelism displays the stealth and disgust Firdaus feels when she is making love with them. This reminds the reader that she shared no intimacy with the men, and she only sleeps with them in order to earn her daily bread. The diction shows that her life is void of feelings and emotions; she appears to be robotic. In contrast, Nora in A Dolls House hides her true feelings and pretends to be desperately in need for help because she wants to stop her husband from reading the letter that could damage their relationship. She needs to act like a docile wife who [couldnt] get anywhere without [his] help (85). she knows that hes so proud of being a man (36). She also lies to Torvald and conceals the truth about her loan because she knows that the truth will hurt his ego. This portrays how well she understands the standing of men in society. She finally has the courage to say No! (98) and this transforms her into a confident woman. The aggressive tone displays the anger and rage in Firdauss heart. After she thrusts aside her anger by killing the pimp she could walk with her head high with the pride of having destroyed all masks to reveal what is hidden behind (96). The real Firdaus is seen after she finds the strength to fight back. The word choice and mood reveals the feelings of happiness Firdaus experiences after she puts aside all the disguises and masks. Firdaus is still vulnerable to men because she has something to lose. When she kills the pimp and later tears up the princes money, Firdaus finally proves that she has control over herself. Moreover, in A Dolls House, Nora also [takes] off [her] fancy dress (96) when she realizes that [she has] been [Helmers] doll-wife (98) and had never had any personal opinions. She realizes that [she] must educate [herself] (99) and try to find out [her] own answers (100). Throughout the play Nora uses exclamatory and childish language. The use of direct language in her dialogues in the climax of the play shows the emergence of a strong and independent woman. Throughout her life she had avoided to face the hardship and realities of life by putting on a disguise but she now realizes that she has been living a lie. She casts aside her fai ade and becomes a changed person. Both Firdaus and Nora execute controversial acts in order acquire freedom. While Firdaus does the unthinkable when she murders a pimp, Nora also breaks the image of the typecast nineteenth century European wife when she leaves her family in order to discover truths about herself and live life on her own terms. Firdaus realized from the beginning that she was a blind creature that could neither see [herself] nor anyone else (41), nevertheless she didnt break free till the end. On the other hand, Nora realization is an on-going process throughout the play. The letter just acts as a catalyst to instigate her to make the divisive decision in the end. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Miscellaneous section.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
In his short life, George Orwell managed to author several works which would inspire debate across the political spectrum for years to come due to his extreme views on Totalitarianism as exemplified in his novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four. Orwell is now regarded as one of the finest essayists in Modern English literature because of his inspired common sense and a power of steady thought. Orwell was born Eric Arthur Blair in Bengal on January 23, 1903. He lived with his two sisters, mother and father who was a minor official in Indian Customs. OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood has been an influence on his later life and writing. British Writers by Ian Scott-Kilvert quotes Orwell as saying: Looking back on my own childhood, after the infant years were over, I do not believe that I ever felt love for any mature person, except my Mother, and even her I did not trust, in the sense that shyness made me conceal most of my real feelings from herÃ¢â¬ ¦ I merely disliked my own father, whom I had barely seen before I was eight and who appeared to me simply as a gruff-voiced elderly man forever saying "DonÃ¢â¬â¢t." Early in his childhood, he was sent to a fashionable preparatory school on a scholarship. The other boys were much better off than Orwell was. Looking back on his school years, British Writers by Ian Scott-Kilvert again quotes Orwell as saying: I had no money, I was weak, I was ugly, I was unpopular, I had a chronic cough, I was cowardly, I smeltÃ¢â¬ ¦ The conviction that it was not possible for me to be a success went deep enough to influence my actions until far into adult life. Until I was thirty I always planned my life on the assumption not only that any major undertaking was bound to fail, but that I could only expect to live a few years longer. At the age of 13, Orwell was rewarded with not one, but two separate scholarships. Orwell decided upon Eton, which was the more distinguished and prestigious of the two. Of his time at Eton, Modern British Essayists by Robert L. Calde quotes Orwell as saying, "I did no work there and learned very little and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel that Eton had much of a formative influence on my life." However, a majority of English students does no work at Universities but instead broaden their outlook on life and acquire a new sense of self-confidence along with an ability that is far more valuable than academic learning. After OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s time at Eton, the natural thing for him to do would have been to go on to Cambridge and continue his career there where he could easily have gained a full
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Ã Over theÃ years,Ã scientists and mental health professionals have made great strides in the treatment of psychological disorders. For example, advances in psychopharmacology have led to the development of drugs that relieve severe symptoms of mental illness. Clinical psychologyÃ is dedicated to the study, diagnosis, and treatment of mental illnesses and other emotional or behavioral disorders. More psychologists work in this field than in any other branch of psychology. In hospitals, community clinics, schools, and in private practice, they use interviews and tests to diagnose depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, and other mental illnesses. People with these psychological disorders often suffer terribly. They experience disturbing symptoms that make it difficult for them to work, relate to others, and cope with the demands of everyday life. Ã Clinical psychologists usually cannot prescribe drugs, but they often work in collaboration with a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s physician. Drug treatment is often combined with psychotherapy, a form of intervention that relies primarily on verbal communication to treat emotional or behavioral problems. Over the years, psychologists have developed many different forms of psychotherapy. Some forms, such as psychoanalysis, focus on resolving internal, unconscious conflicts stemming from childhood and past experiences. Other forms, such as cognitive and behavioral therapies, focus more on the personÃ¢â¬â¢s current level of functioning and try to help the individual change distressing thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. Ã The fieldÃ ofÃ counseling psychology is closely related to clinical psychology. Counseling psychologists may treat mental disorders, but they more commonly treat people with less-severe adjustment problems related to marriage, family, school, or career. Many other types of professionals care for and treat people with psychological disorders, including psychiatrists, psychiatric social workers, and psychiatric nurses. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã As a psychiatric health nurse we works closely with other disciplines to arrive at the most appropriate plan of care for the client and the family. The physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility is to make a medical diagnosis when there is sufficient support to determine that a psychiatric problem is present. The taxonomy used to make the medical diagnosis is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, commonly called the DSM-III-R of the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-III-R uses a biopsychosocial perspective but is considered atheoretical, so that it can be readily accepted and used by all who diagnose the psychiatric client. The nurse assists the process by sharing important information about the client from the nursing history, mental status assessment, and daily observations. A working knowledge of the DSM-III-R is important in maximizing the team effort to help the client. Knowledge of the criteria will help the nurse for deciding on a particular medical diagnosis found in the DSM III-R may help the nurse in making a clinical condition about a nursing diagnosis. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The DSM-III-R is a multiaxial system. The diagnostic criteria are inclusive for each diagnosis and allow room for individual differences within a pattern of behavior by including phrases such as Ã¢â¬Å"at least one of the followingÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Ëfor at least 6 monthsÃ¢â¬ . Five axes constitute the format for a complete psychiatric diagnosis. A five digit coding system is used for the first three axes. Axis I comprises the major mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar illness, and substance abuse disorders. A disorder of this nature is usually the main reason the client is seeking help. On the other hand, Axis II comprises the personality disorders and developmental disorders such as paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. This axis separates the patterns of lifestyle and coping that have developed from childhood from the more acute manifestation of behavior in the major mental disorders. Axis III indicates the related physical disorders and conditions that may be influencing the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s response to the psychiatric problems such fro example, asthma, gastric ulcer, or diabetes. Axis IV indicates the severity of the psychosocial stressors over the past year such as anticipated retirement, natural disaster and change in residence with loss of contact with friends. The Axis V represents the global assessment functioning (GAF) both currently and over the preceding year. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã So how does Axis I differ from Axis II? Now letÃ¢â¬â¢s try to compare and contrast their similarities as well as their differences. Under Class A Axis II are the personality disorders; paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder. Personality is vital to defining who we are as individuals. It involves a unique blend of traitsÃ¢â¬âincluding attitudes, thoughts, behaviors, and moodsÃ¢â¬âas well as how we express these traits in our contacts with other people and the world around us. Some characteristics of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s personality are inherited, and some are shaped by life events and experiences. A personality disorder can develop if certain personality traits become too rigid and inflexible. People with personality disorders have long-standing patterns of thinking and acting that differ from what society considers usual or normal. The inflexibility of their personality can cause great distress, and can interfere with many areas of life, including social and work functioning. People with personality disorders generally also have poor coping skills and difficulty forming healthy relationships. Unlike people with anxiety disorders, who know they have a problem but are unable to control it, people with personality disorders generally are not aware that they have a problem and do not believe they have anything to control. Because they do not believe they have a disorder, people with personality disorders often do not seek treatment. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã A paranoid personality disorder applies to a person who displays pervasive and long-standing suspiciousness. This suspicious pattern affects perceptual, cognitive, affective and behavioral functions in specific ways. In personÃ¢â¬â¢s with paranoid personalities, perception is extremely acute, intense and narrowly focused in search of clues or the real meaning behind otherÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior or life events in general. In a cognitive side, the great perceptual distortion is present in paranoid personality. Cognitive disturbances may range from transient ideas of reference, in which a person believe others are giving them special attention or gossiping about them unlike Manic disorder the client is easy going and friendly. The paranoid personÃ¢â¬â¢s affective domain reflects a lack of basic trust, extreme suspiciousness, vigilant mistrust, guardedness and hostility. Typically, paranoid person assume a callous, unsympathetic approach to others in an effort to purge themselves of any tendencies to experience humor or affectionate and tender feelings.Ã For the most part, they remain coldly reserved and on the periphery of events, seldom mixing smoothly with people in social situation, remaining withdrawn, distant and secretive instead.Ã Rarely do they seem relaxed and unguarded. Unlike with Axis I manic bipolar disorder, Manic clients are self-satisfied, confident and aggressive and feel on top of the world and in control of their destinies, paranoid patient are reserved type while manic is transparent, the manic clients remarks are very similar to free associations, disorganized and incoherent. Manic client is full of ambitious schemes and exaggerations while a paranoid person often engages in verbal interchanges designed to test others honesty. The content of their verbalization usually reflects themes of blame, deceit, control, persecution and self-aggrandizement. Similarities of manic and paranoid personality disorder are that they appear hypervigilant, mobilized and prepared for attack. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Socially detached, shy and introverted persons may be described as having schizoid personality disorder while Schizophrenia is psychotic disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, affect, behavior and communication lasting longer than 6 months. Schizoid refers to persons exhibiting perceptual, cognitive, affective and behavioral patterns that fall within the healthier end of the schizophrenic spectrum. This personality disorder differs from schizotypal personality disorder in that the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s symptomatology more closely resembles schizophrenia. In contrast to both schizotypals and schizophrenics, schizoid personalities do not demonstrate odd or eccentric perceptual, cognitive and behavioral patterns. Ã Persons with schizoid personalities exhibit a distorted pattern of perception, characterized by a reduced ability to attend, select, differentiate and discriminate adequately between and among interpersonal and social sensory inputs while the perception of Depressive disorder clients may be distorted too because of their intense affective states. They perceive the world as strange and unnatural. For instance, a client with deep guilt feelings may interpret the sound of wind in the trees as reproaching voices (illusion) the severely depressed client may less frequently experience hallucinations. Auditory hallucination may be present such as a client may hear voices blaming her or telling her that she is worthless. Illusion and hallucination do not occur in Schizoid personality disorder. They are able to recognize reality despite their faulty interpersonal or social perception. Schizotypal personality disorder is one of a group of conditions called eccentric personality disorders. People with these disorders often appear odd or peculiar. They might display unusual thinking patterns, behaviors, or appearances. People with schizotypal personality disorder might have odd beliefs or superstitions. These individuals are unable to form close relationships and tend to distort reality. In this respect, schizotypal personality disorder can seem like a mild form of schizophreniaÃ¢â¬âa serious brain disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others. In rare cases, people with schizotypal personality disorder can eventually develop schizophrenia. Additional traits of people with this disorder include the following; dressing, speaking, or acting in an odd or peculiar way, being suspicious and paranoid, being uncomfortable or anxious in social situations because of their distrust of others, having few friends and being extremely uncomfortable with intimacy, tending to misinterpret reality or to have distorted perceptions (for example, mistaking noises for voices), having odd beliefs or magical thinking (for example, being overly superstitious or thinking of themselves as psychic), Being preoccupied with fantasy and daydreaming, tending to be stiff and awkward when relating to others, coming across as emotionally distant, aloof, or cold. Hallucination, and illusion may not be present in schizotypal personality disorder but it is always present in Schizophrenia. There is lack deterioration of functioning in schizopherenia while their no huge deterioration is schizotypal personality, they are also in touch with reality and they are aware of their eccentricities and their deterioration is occurring within a time frame while Schizophrenia is usually diagnosed in peopleÃ aged 17-35 years, delusions, false personal beliefs held with conviction in spite of reason or evidence to the contrary, not explained byÃ that personÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural contextÃ is present. Their is hallucinations,Ã perceptions (can beÃ sound, sight, touch, smell, or taste) that occur in the absence of an actual external stimulusÃ (Auditory hallucinations, those of voice or other sounds,Ã are the most common type of hallucinationsÃ in schizophrenia, disorganized, thoughts and behaviors, disorganized speech, catatonic behavior are also manifested. Literature Cited: Million, Theodore & Davis Roger. (1996). Disorders of Personality: DSM IV and Beyond. Published by Wiley. Kaplan, Harold, M.D & Saddock, Benjamin, M.D. (1990). Modern Synopsis of Psychiatry. Maryland USA. The Williams and Wilkins Company Introduction to Personality Disorder. Capella University. Retrieved March 11, 2008 from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/center_index.php?id=8 Personality Disorder. MayoClinic.com. Retrieved March 11, 2008 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/personality-disorders/DS00562/DSECTION=2 Schizophrenia. PSY web. Retrieved March 11, 2008 from http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/jsp/schid.jsp About Clinical Psychology. American Psychological Association. Retrieved March 13,2008 from http://www.apa.org/divisions/div12/aboutcp.html Ã
Monday, January 6, 2020
Case 1 1. We used operation time to calculate the utilization of various facilities. Calculation is as below. After analysing the calculated result, we found out that cardio equipment is over booked during peak hours in 2000 as per the five year growth trend, the gym membership is going to grow in future years. So in order to accommodate the future members the gym has to increase the capacity of the cardio equipmentÃ¢â¬â¢s with 40%cushion capacity and the rest of the facilities which are nearing the 30% cushion rate should be next in line for capacity upgrading. 2. Expansionist strategy would be appropriate for the Fitness Plus gym. Since the gym is expecting new enrolment in January and that is also the peak period of the year. And according to the case if they need to increase the capacity that would take 4 month time for renovation. So in order to accommodate the new enrollment and the current member gym they need to increase the capacity of some of the facilities as per the cushion. For the long time strategy the gym should adopt Ã¢â¬Å"wait and seeÃ¢â¬ as it has to evaluate the effect of competition on their customer base. - If it was not affecting, they should adopt continuous expansion strategy - If it is affecting, they should stick with Wait and see strategy. 3. Capacity decision made were based on the capacity utilisation of the facilities provided by the gym. Since the gym financial stand point is not strong; only the over utilised facilities are planned for expansion.Show MoreRelatedMarketing Mix Strategy For North Shore Gym1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMarketing Mix Strategy Product North Shore gym is able to offer a wide variety of services that will contribute to a healthy lifestyle. 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